Physical experiments for children at home
physical experiments for children in home conditionswhen winter begins soon, and with it the long-awaited time of the advent calendar. In the meantime, we suggest that you take your child no less exciting experiences at home, because you want miracles not only for the New year, but every day.
In this article, we will talk about experiments that clearly demonstrate to children such physical phenomena as atmospheric pressure, the properties of gases, the movement of air flows and the appearance of shadows from various objects.
These experiments will cause your baby to surprise and delight, and even a four-year-old can repeat them under your supervision.
How do I fill a water bottle without hands?
We will need:
a bowl with cold and tinted water for clarity;
Pour hot water into the bottle several times so that it warms up well. Empty hot bottle turn the neck down and put it in a bowl of cold water. We observe how the water from the bowl is collected in a bottle and contrary to the law of communicating vessels – the water level in the bottle is much higher than in the bowl.
experience for children: water is poured into a bottle
Why is this happening? Initially, a well-warmed bottle is filled with warm air. As the cooling gas is compressed, filling in all the a smaller amount. Thus, a low-pressure environment is formed in the bottle, where the water is sent to restore balance, because the water outside is pressed by atmospheric pressure. Colored water will flow into the bottle until the pressure inside and outside the glass vessel is equalized.
For this experience, we will need:
glass bottle with a narrow neck that can completely cover the coin;
An empty open glass bottle is left in the freezer (or outside in winter) for 1 hour. We take out the bottle, moisten the coin with water and put it on the neck of the bottle. After a few seconds, the coin will begin to bounce on the neck and make characteristic clicks.
the physical experience of the dancing coin
This behavior of the coin is explained by the ability of gases to expand when heated. The air is a mixture of gases, and when we took the bottle out of the refrigerator it was filled with cold air. At room temperature, the gas inside began to heat up and increase in volume, while the coin blocked its exit. So the warm air began to push the coin out, and in due time it began to bounce on the bottle and click.
It is important that the coin is wet and fits snugly to the neck, otherwise the focus will not work and the warm air will freely leave the bottle without flipping a coin.
Non – spill glass
Ask the child to turn the glass filled with water so that the water does not spill out of it. For sure, the kid will refuse such a Scam or at the first attempt will pour water into the basin. Teach him the next trick. We will need:
glass of water;
a piece of cardboard;
basin / sink for safety.
Cover the glass with water with cardboard, and holding the last hand-turn the glass over, then remove the hand. This experience is better spent over the basin / sink, because if the glass is kept upside down for a long time, the cardboard will eventually get wet and water will spill. Paper instead of cardboard is better not to use for the same reason.
water in an inverted glass
Discuss with your child: why does the cardboard prevent water from escaping from the glass, because it is not glued to the glass, and why does the cardboard not immediately fall under the influence of gravity?
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At the moment of getting wet – cardboard molecules interact with water molecules, attracting each other. From this point on, water and cardboard interact as one. In addition, wet cardboard prevents air from entering the glass, which does not change the pressure inside the glass.
In this case, the cardboard is pressed not only by the water from the glass, but also by the air outside, which forms the force of atmospheric pressure. It is the atmospheric pressure that presses the cardboard to the glass, forming a kind of lid, and does not allow the water to pour out.
Experience with a hair dryer and a strip of paper
We continue to surprise the child. We construct a structure from books and attach a strip of paper to them from above (we did this with tape). The paper hangs from the books, as shown in the photo. Choose the width and length of the strip, focusing on the power of the hair dryer (we took 4 by 25 cm).
Now turn on the hair dryer and direct the air stream parallel to the lying paper. Despite the fact that the air blows not on the paper, but next to it – the strip rises from the table and develops as if in the wind.
experiments for children with a hair dryer
Why does this happen and what makes the strip move? Initially, the strip is affected by gravity and atmospheric pressure. The hair dryer creates a strong air flow along the paper. At this point, a zone of reduced pressure is formed, and the paper is deflected towards it.
Blow out the candle?
We begin to teach the baby to blow even before a year old, preparing it for its first birthday. When the child has grown up and fully mastered this skill-ask him to blow out the candle through the funnel. In the first case, placing the funnel so that its center corresponds to the level of the flame. And the second time, so that the flame is located along the edge of the funnel.
For sure, the child will be surprised that all his efforts in the first case will not give the proper result in the form of a extinguished candle. In the second case, the effect will be instantaneous.
experience for children: blow out a candle through a funnel
Why? When air enters the funnel, it is evenly distributed along its walls, so the maximum flow rate is observed at the edge of the funnel. And in the center, the air velocity is small, which does not allow the candle to go out.
Shadow from the candle and from the fire
We will need:
We light the cross-section and placing it against the wall or another screen, we light it with a flashlight. The shadow of the candle itself will appear on the wall, but there will be no shadow from the fire. Ask the child why this happened?
experience for children: shadow from a candle
The fact is that fire itself is a source of light and passes through other light rays. And since the shadow appears when the side lighting of an object that does not pass the rays of light, the fire can not give a shadow. But it’s not that simple. Depending on the substance being burned, the fire can be filled with various impurities, soot, etc.In this case, you can see a blurred shadow, which is exactly what these inclusions give.